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    Approach of the Nutritive Effect and Mechanism of Betaine
    Betaine is a natural compound in the animals’organism, whose active methyl functional group takes in the metabolisms of amino acids and lipids. Betaine has multiple bio-functions such as promotion of the intake and growth of animals, improvement of the feed conversion efficiency, perfect body compositions, improvement of the meat quality, relaxation of stress response, etc, hence it has been paid much attention of the animal nutritionists and has become one of the research hotsopts in 1990s. Its national and international progress is as following:

    1, Effect of betaine on the reproduction performance of animals 
    In early times, Hurtung(1953) reported that addition of betaine dialyzed concentration in wholly botanical-based feed could significantly improve the growing rate of Single Comb white Rhode Island Red chicken for fattening. Pesti’s research (1979) showed that addition of 0.23 % betaine hydrochloride in corn-bean meal type feed (crude protein: 23 %, metabolizable energy: 13.38 MJ/kg, methionine: 0.37 %, sulfur-containing amino acids: 0.74 %) could improve 14.53 % daily gain of 21-day chicken for fattening and deceased 5.56 % feed£¯weight ratio. In 1992 in America, James added 500, 1000, and 1500 mg/kg betaine to the same basic dieary feed (Former stage: methionine: 0.37 %, sulfur-containing amino acids: 0.69 %; later stage: methionine: 0.31 %, sulfur-containing amino acids: 0.64 %) by comparison of the addition of equivelent methionine, the result showed that the growing rates of chicken for fattening were the same, but the feed conversion efficiency of feed containing betainewas a little better than that of methionine. In Sweden, addition of 1100 mg/kg betaine in wheat-soybean meal basic dietary feed obtained similar result, compared to that of equivelent methionine. Eprotrn’s research (1986) showed that addition of 622 mg/kg betaine in the feed containing 0.35 % methionine could improve 2 % of the total egg-deposited of LSL hens of 24-36 weeks and reduced 2 % of the feed/egg ratio.

    Finland Sugar Industry Co., Ltd added of 0.5 %-1.5 % betaine product to the feeds of several fish species, the research showed that it has significant promotion on the growth of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar Linnaeus), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Red sea bramides , Bulltrout, conger (Anguilla japonica Temminck et Schlegel), as well as some crustaceans such as Penaeus vannamei Boone. For example, betaine could improved about 20 % body weights and feed conversion efficiency of the rainbow trouts with 0.15 g original body weight after 8 weeks, as well as improved the adaptivity and survival rate of the young fish. Another example, betaine could improve 31.9 % of the body weight gain and reduced 24.60 % of the bait coeficient of Atlantic salmon. Youli Yan’s reseach (1993) showed that additions of 0.3 % betaine (98 %), 0.5 % crude betaine hydrochloride (67 %), and 0.3 % fine betaine hydrochloride (98 %) respectively to the two-instar Cyprinus carpio bait containing 31.69 % crude protein and 3.89 % crude fat, the mean body weights increased 49.32 %, 41.78 %, 43.84 %, respectively; and the bait parameters decreased 24.16 %, 22.13 %, and 14.13 %, respectively. Yangjun Zhang’s reseach (1991) showed that replacement of part choine chloride with betaine in the bait of Macrobrachium rosenbergii shortened 1/4-1/2 of their in-take time and strenthened their in-take capacities. Macrobrachium rosenbergii increased 27.63% of their mean body lengthes, 20.27 % of their mean body weights in 150 days, and the bait parameters decreased 8 %. Cyprinus carpio test conducted by Beijing Chaoyang Aquatic Products Bureau showed that additions of 0.3 % betaine and 0.10 % betaine compound increased 30 % and 38 % yields, respectively.

    2, Influence of betaine on carcass composition and visceral organs of animals 
    The comparison test of betaine and choline showed that fledglings fed with betaine had low content of body fat (BF) (Sandarson,1990; Mckinley,1990), and BF tended to be distribution, hence the meat quality was loose and tasteful (Shette,1993). Finland Culter Company conducted the effect comparison test of betaine and methionine (with the same ingredients in basic dietary feed) in US, the result showed that fledglings fed with betaine improved 3.7 % meat yield compared to those fed with methionine. An Australia report showed that addition of betaine at a dosage of 1250 mg/kg body weight to the finisher dietary feed (Digestive energy: 13.5 MJ/kg) of youth female pigs reduced 14.8 % backfat thickness, increased eye muscle area, and improved carcass integration of. Some report also showed that addition of betaine in mixed feed could reduce fat content in the livers of carps.

    3, Betaine’s medicine value 
    Pharmacologic studies showed that betaine and its hydrochloride had the effects of anti-homocysteine, anti-pentrolone, and electroconvulsive shock of little mice, as well as the retardant effect of shock caused by picrotoxin and strychnine (Deyi Xu, 1984). Betaine hydrochloride in mice feed could produce sedative effect, strengthen the hypnotic and anti-nociceptive effects of sodium pentobarbital, and it had not significant effect on the body temperature of health domestic rabbits, but it could reduce fever extent caused by intracelltlar toxin (Deyi Xu, 1986). Difang Shan et. al (1985) reported the relations of vasodllatlve effect between betaine and astragalus, intravenous injection of betaine to little mice could significantly reduce the vascular resistances of arteries and portal veins; intra-arterial injection of trace betaine (1/25 of intravenous injection dosage) could only significantly reduced the vascular resistances of portal artery. The researches of Yong Jiao(1990), Miaohua Chen (1993), Zhirong Wu (1992) showed that Cistanche deserticola. Ma and Lycium barbarum had the effects of protecting liver, nourishing kidney, and tonic Yang, whose effective ingredient is betaine. Cuiying Hou (1988) considered that Ganoderma lucidum (Ganoderma lucidum karst spores) had satisfied effects on curing Myotonic dystrophy, Multiple sclerosis, visceral hyperactivity disorder, whose main water-soluble ingredient was also betaine. It has been demonstrated that betaine has little toxic for intravenous injection 2.4 g/kg betaine to big white mice showed non-toxic, and subcutaneous injection of small white mice showed that its LD50 =18.14 g/kg(Zerong Jiang,1984).

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